Tag: TESL

CLIL in Practice – An Example Activity

CLIL in Practice – An Example Activity

What is CLIL? 

2200500024_e93db99b61.jpgThe acronym CLIL stands for “Content and language integrated learning” and was coined by David Marsh to denote an approach to language teaching with a dual aim, namely learning a foreign langauge and simultaneously learning something new about a subject, new content.  

In their 2010 book, Coyle, Hood & Marsh present four components – the 4Cs  – of CLIL

Content (What are the learning outcomes regarding the subject content?).

Cognition (What higher-order thinking skills are included to encourage meaningful learning?). 

Communication (What language and skills will be learnt and what langauge and skill swill be practised?).

Culture (How can the activity promote awareness and tolerance in students, and an interest in looking beyond the ‘self’?) 

Here is an example lesson project that encompasses the 4Cs of CLIL:

Example CLIL Project: Mock general election

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In this project, one class group is one constituency in the UK. If you have several class groups, each of them can represent one constituency. If students or teacher need a basic introduction to egovenment/parliament and elections in the UK, the PPT below can be used [3].

Students in the class / in each class are divided into~5x pairs or small groups , each of which represents one of the main British political parties (e.g. Labour, Conservatives, Liberal Democrats, Greens). Each group nominates one candidate, whose name will appear on the ballot paper (the teacher should make these [1]).

In their party groups, students research the general philosophy of their party and use the party’s website and other promotional material to inform themselves about the main policy ideas of their party. This can be done as homework or in class, and can be supported by providing a webquest or worksheet where necessary – this can also be used to introduce and practise key election / political vocabulary. If this is done in class, with further research at home, the teacher could also provide basic information about the parties to help guide students [2].

Once they have a general idea about their party, students should create a slogan to accompany their election campaign. This can also be written or edited after the next stage.

Students are asked to choose 4-5 main policy areas which they deem most relevant to the target voters in their constituency, and to find examples or data which support their party’s policies in these areas. The teacher could also provide statistics, graphs, etc. as data which the students can analyse  to find the most pertinent points for supporting their party’s ideas. This can also be done as homework, and students can then divide up the policy areas to research.

Students watch an example party political broadcast – this should be from a party that is not being used in the mock election, so as to avoid unfair advantage! Students should be guided to notice useful phrses or features of the language (& persuasive techniques) used in the broadcast, and should take note of these. This is best done in class so the teacher can monitor the language noted. A worksheet could be provided with questions to guide students’ attention to specific points of the speech.

eu-parliament-strasbourg.jpgFocussing on the policy areas they have chosen and the supporting evidence they have analysed, and employing the language features they noted down from the party political broadcast, the party groups then create short speeches / party political broadcasts (max. 5 mins) to present and promote their policy ideas to the class group (=target voters). To ensure that all students speak, each one can present one policy idea. Students can also create one poster or PPT slide to advertise their party, main policies, and candidate.

Whilst listening to the parties’ speeches, the audience takes notes on the key policies and how well supported they are in the speech. They can be instructed to use these notes to make their decision about who to vote for.

ballot-1294935_960_720.pngOnce all of the speeches have been heard, the room can be re-arranged to make polling booths, where students will be able to cast their vote anonymously. The teacher hands out the ballot papers, and provides a ballot box for the students to cast their vote in.

Either the teacher, or 2 nominated students count the votes and present the results.

 

As an extension, students can be invited to discuss the electoral system and analyse the results – this could also be given as a homework writing task.

Materials

[3] PPT on government/parliament and elections in the UK: PPT UK Elections

[2] Basic information about political parties (adapted from YVote): Election-political-parties info

[1] Ballot papers (adapted from YVote): Election-ballot-papers_enlarged_with-text-fields

The 4Cs of CLIL in the example activity

CONTENT

  • Understanding the electoral system (first-past-the-post) of UK general elections
  • Understanding the general approaches and some main policy ideas of key political parties in the UK
  • Understanding the principles of British democracy, parliament and government

 

COGNITION

  • Analysing input texts for biased information
  • Analysing data regarding policy topics
  • Evaluating relevance of various policy topics to the class group (=target voters)
  • Synthesising information from various sources into speech

 

COMMUNICATION

  • Election-specific language 
  • Argumentational language and techniques of persuasion 
  • Grammar for referring to future time
  • Public speaking skills
  • Functional / operational language to facilitate group work

 

CULTURE

  • Promoting tolerance of various political views
  • Comparison links to political parties in students’ home country/ies
  • Actively engaging students with the issues around them
  • Helping address the trend of voter disengagement amongst young people
  • Enabling students to become informed and questioning citizens
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IATEFL ReSIG PCE Day

Today I was part of a really energising event: the Pre-Conference Event held by the Research SIG of IATEFL at the annual conference in Harrogate.  The day was especially focused on teachers’s research and set up to be “for teachers by teachers”. We heard some really interesting poster presentations, and had some interesting discussions in plenary. Here are my personal highlights.

 

Good ideas I learnt from poster presentations & the discussions that followed

–          “Process-folios”: Instead of assessing students on a portfolio consisting of the work they have chosen, their best pieces of work, get students to produce a portfolio which demonstrates the process through which they arrived at their final product and how they improved the product and their language/skills throughout the project. For example, if they are working on an essay, the process-folio could include reading notes, essay plan(s)/outline(s), drafts, feedback, peer review, reflections, etc, as well as the final essay. Since it’s hard to give a grade for this kind of documentation, the assessment could be a list of ‘can do’ statements, so the students have to prove through the documents included in their process-folio that they have the skills to complete the tasks listed in the statements, for example ‘I can narrow down a topic appropriately’, ‘I can read sources critically’, ‘I can incorporate feedback into my work’. These process-folios remove the pressure from students of producing one very good essay (for example) and re-focus their attention on the process of improving themselves and their work.  (Thanks to Jayne Pearson for this idea!)

 

–          Group peer review: Instead of having students bring copies of their written work to class and working in pairs or small groups on peer reviewing tasks, put the documents online (e.g. in a Google Group) and invite everyone in the class/group to leave comments on all the other pieces of work. Students can sign up to the group using pseudonyms, and the anonymity can help to make the feedback more honest. It will probably also mean that students receive feedback from peers who are not in their immediate friendship group (who they would probably work with if given the chance in class) and are thus likely to receive a broad range of comments and ideas. They may be exposed to new approaches to improving their writing, and receive more abundant feedback than just from one partner within the lesson time. (Thanks to Elena Oncevska for this idea!)

 

–          Online/Smart phone apps for improving oral fluency: Students can be encouraged to improve their own oral fluency if they are aware of where their weaknesses lie. There are a number of tools available on the internet or as smart phone apps which can make this work more motivating. For example, the IDEA (International Dialects of English Archive) provides recordings of English speakers from around the globe, who are speaking freely and naturally (not like the staged recordings often found in textbooks!). These recordings can be used to encourage students to notice what exactly it is they listen to when someone is speaking, what aspects of their speech make them sound ‘fluent’, etc. And then they can record their own speech (using smart phones, usually no special app is required) to ‘anaylse’ and compare with the IDEA samples. Other apps, such as The Ahcounter or The Hitcounter can be used by students (alone, in groups, or with/by the teacher) to measure things such as words per minute, the number of disfluent interruptions (e.g. ah, err, um) in a concrete nominal way, from which the students can set themselves targets and continue to monitor improvements in their fluency. Being allowed to use their mobiles in class will probably bring additional motivation to the task! (Thanks to Becky Steven and Jessica Cobley for this idea)

 

Interesting points of discussion

We didn’t really find clear answers to any of these, but I think the questions are important ones for teachers to be asking themselves and perhaps discussing with colleagues – and it would be great to read your ideas if you’d like to post them as comments below.

 

–          Is teacher/action research simply part of good teaching practice, or is there something more to it?

–          What is the relationship between action research and professional development?

–          Where is the boundary between teacher research and “proper” academic research?

–          How can we share and disseminate the findings of teacher research projects to reach the people who are actually in the classroom?

 

As you can see, an interesting and productive day … can’t wait to see what the rest of the conference holds in store!

 

By the way, if you’re interested in seeing/hearing more from the ReSIG PCE, here are the videos from all the poster presentations: http://resig.weebly.com/teachers-research-1-april-2014.html