“Achieving Phonology’s Potential in the ELT Classroom”
– A very inspiring talk by Adam Scott on 5th April at IATEFL 2017 in Glasgow.
In his talk, Adam presented his manifesto, a call to arms, to bring about a shift towards higher awareness of the importance of phonology in ELT. He’s convinced that we will experience ‘learning by doing’ and gain new insights into phonology and techniques for teaching it, if we just start teaching it! Here’s what he said:
More phonology – Why?
It can motivate students to understand phonology and the ‘mysterious’ relationship between spelling and pronunciation.
Discussing pronunciation as a group can help make teachers more responsive to students’ needs.
Having students tackle misunderstandings due to pronunciation can make classroom interaction more authentic and closer to real-world conversations.
It trains processing and noticing, and allows a focus on what causes communication to break down (rather than focussing on an idealised accent).
Adding feedback on pronunciation etc. can generate more learning at any stage of a lesson.
Chunking grammar as connected speech phrases can aid recall; it is more efficient for memory as the sound shapes and grammatical patterns will be stored together.
More phonology – How?
Have a pronunciation sub-aim which fits in with the other aims of the lesson/tasks, on either receptive or productive skills.
Include plenty of well-contextualised examples of the use of spoken language in lessons.
Approach phonology in a way that promotes collaboration with and between students.
Stop being the interpreter for students! Encourage them to work with and in the language together, e.g. get them to ask each other if they don’t understand something someone has said.
During discussions, etc., identify the pronunciation issues students find most difficult and that most hinder comprehension, to work on these in specific pronunciation practice tasks.
Give specific feedback, not only on the pronunciation of individual words, but also on other phonological features of connected speech such as linking, stress, etc. Immediate feedback can also help other students to learn from one person’s difficulty.
Help students to forge the link between visual and audio representations of words; they should Look (at the written word), Listen and Repeat (model pronunciation).
Help students to process new sound patterns not found in their L1, by mapping the sounds onto the complex English spelling system, e.g. with the IPA or phonics.
Pairwork requires mutual intelligibility – and the teacher can monitor both task progress and phonological features that allow mutual comprehension.
Recycle tasks that were used for another purpose by creating a pronunciation/phonological focus, e.g. on contrastive stress, phrasal verbs vs verbs + prepositions.
Hot tip: Put the IPA transcription of new words above / in front of the written form of the word, so that it gets students’ main attention.
Hot tip: Use underlining to show which letters together make one sound in a word, e.g. s a nd w i ch e s
These tips show that it is easy to fit more phonology in to our current teaching practice; it means minimal extra work for teachers, but could lead to great pay offs! Adam is advocating the need for innovation in L2 pronunciation teaching, and after this talk, I’m very much inclined to agree!
Adam’s slides are available here from his highly recommendable website: teachadam.com